Quick Composting Through Effective Micro Organism Technology
By Dr. Anjan Sengupta (Asst. Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of Tripura)
Growing concern about the adverse effects of application of chemicals in the agriculture practices has compelled us to restore the environment for sustainable production that encourages the use of organic inputs and Effective Micro Organism Technology driven quick composting. The process offers immense scope to small and marginal farmers in creating their own organic manurial resources and ways to generate alternative income. It is considered necessary to promote and take this technology to the door step of the farmers in every corner of the state for improvement of soil heath and to create a hazard free sustainable environment.
The term EM is coined from the words “Effective Microorganisms by a Japanese Scientist who developed EM, which consists of a wide variety of effective, beneficial and non-pathogenic microorganisms produced through a natural process and not chemically synthesized or genetically engineered.
EM has a broad application. It has no adverse effects on and is beneficial to plants, animals and humans.EM lives off our waste while we live off “their waste”.Their waste simply translates to a healthy environment for us in which EM becomes inactivated, therefore, a mutual existence can be had. EM only creates the condition for best results, that is, the users should nurture the condition and provide the resources for EM to perform optimally. Microorganisms exist naturally throughout the environment from rock crevices to our internal organs. In our present day environment, putrefactive microorganisms, those types responsible for the rotting of organic matter to maladies in organisms, dominate much of the sphere of the microorganisms.
EM has the potential, given the conditions, to suppress the putrefactive microorganisms and dominate this sphere and creates re-animated surroundings, that is, organics are transformed through the process of fermentation as opposed to putrefaction, and living organisms, as well as, inorganic materials are enabled with the means to impede deterioration. Deterioration is here meant the activity of active oxygen or free-radicals through which organisms degenerate and inorganic materials corrode, as in iron rusting. EM can thus, also, be considered as an antioxidant.
Micro organism in EM:
When mentioning the word microorganism or bacteria, one may imagine harmful germs. However the microorganisms used in EM production (Lactic Acid Bacteria, Yeast, Phototrophic Bacteria) exclude any pathogenic and genetically modified microorganisms that are harmful to humans, animals and plants. EM consists only of safe microorganisms that have been used, either intentionally or unintentionally, since ancient times.
Lactic Acid Bacteria:
Lactic acid bacteria is, taxonomically, a generic term for bacteria that convert large amounts of sugars into lactic acid through lactic acid fermentation.
Known as a fermentation starter, yeast is a microorganism necessary for the brewing of alcohol and the making of bread. In EM yeast produces many biologically active agents such as amino acids and polysaccharides.
It is also known as photosynthetic bacteria are basically an ancient type of bacteria in existence from before the Earth had its present concentration of oxygen. As its name indicates, these bacteria utilize solar energy to metabolize organic and inorganic substances.