Conflict Between The Nature & The Human Intellect
By Dr. S.N. Maitra (Ex-Associate Professor, A.P.C. College, New Barrackpore, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India)
A Great Conflict Between The Nature And The Human Intellect To Achieve Higher Order Of Civilized Modernization
Man, the most intellect species and the latest evolutionary product that evolved somewhere at 0.2 million years ago from now in and around Ethiopia of African Peninsular region. According to the human evolutionary history it is now believed that a quadruped Mammalian stalk, the Ramapithecus, evolved through Australopithecus anamnesis, Australopithecus afarensis, (the first bipedal group), Australopithecus africana, Hominine, Homo rudalfensis, Homo ergester, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo hydelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis and finally the Homo sapiens sapiens (the modern man). There had been a prolonged and controversial debate for about hundred years or so within various research groups for hominine evolution as regard to the exact place of origin of man whether man did evolve in Africa and migrated to other parts of the globe or man originated in Asia , Africa and Europe separately presenting parallel evolution , may be from Homo habilis and or Homo erectus as those two genus migrated from African Hominine lineage for the first time evident by their fossil distribution in Asia and Europe along with African types and thus the modern man might have originated out of Africa and thereafter they migrated to Africa. This controversial debate rooted from the fact that the fossils of our remote predecessors were discovered in Europe, Africa and Asia from Homo habilis stage and afterwards up to our species. Prior to Homo habilis, fossils of all other hominine or even the remote lineages were discovered only in Africa. However, very lately with the help of emergent technological knowhow genomic DNA mystery of various fossil remains of our lineages through the entire evolutionary line (From Ramapithecus to Homo sapiens) has been unraveled suggesting the evolution of man was in a typical monophyletic way in Africa. That means the man evolved from a quadruped Ramopthecine mammalian stalk only in Africa though the neanderthalian groupthat is Homo neanderthalensis though the fossils of Homo neanderthalensis were not found in Africa as yet rather they were prevalent in Germen based Europe only. Therefore it was proved beyond doubt that evolution of this group of genus Homo occurred in and around Neanderthal valley of Germany, may be from Homo erectus. By the comparison between fossil remains of those two species of genus Homo, it was unequivocally proved that these two species differ not only to their final evolutionary geography but physiologically and cephalic volume wise the Homo neanderthalensis was much robust both for skeletal as well as for musculature. Their brain volume was about 1600 cc whereas that of our species was about 1356 cc. Most unfortunately our brother species, the neanderthalensis got extinct about 30,000 years ago or so as the various fossil records suggest. The exact cause of their extinction is yet to confirm though restricted adapted radiation leading to intense inbreeding (within nearest kith and kens) might have produced extreme genomic stagnancy as a consequence the entire species got extinct may be one of the few reasons.
Now before entering the main point, let us search about the origin and interactive power of the nature with any genomic mass destined to be a new species, the all-pervading life selecting force, with any organic forms in particular and all forms of inorganic matters in general on this planet. For the purpose of gathering knowledge about the nature and it’s coming in to being we will have to venture, though very briefly, about the Earth’s origin and its transformation in to live bearing planet. Now it is estimated by the study of various radioactive decay processes of in organic materials such as Carbone, Iron, Silicon, nickel, plutonium, and some other such material that the Earth originated from a Solar Galaxy about 5billion years ago from now with a result of prolonged and huge bombardments among various very hot matters within it to be catapulted from the central gravitational force of the solar galaxy but remained in a beautiful well organized planetary calyx orbiting round the sun. At that time the globe was a glowing ball, whose temperature ranging from four thousand to six thousand degree of centigrade. Only after 1.7 billion years that is about 3.3 billion years ago from now the first organic molecular traces were evident on this planet and thus that time on has been considered to be as the time of ‘origin of life’. Since at that time there was no free O2 in air, the entire environment was non congenial for supporting any form of life needing O2. After that time another billions of years was needed to evolve the single celled algae and thereafter the free O2 started to evolve only when from the today‘s almighty nature started to take its shape. Gradually afterward various plants evolved and finally about 1.5 billion years ago from now the appearance of singled celled protozoan animals were recorded and by that time the almighty nature took its form and started to become whole and sole life regulatory force on this globe which is now known as the ‘natural selection’.
Thus, the almighty life regulatory all-pervading nature has been active for about two billion years while the self-claimed almighty Homo genus evolved only about 0.2 million years ago on this earth.
All scientific evidences claim that Homo habilis started the usage of fire, yielded by stone rubbing, though sporadically, and that was the first interference for polluting the natural selective force, the only life supporting, modulating and adaptation regulatory force on this planet. Homo erectas evolved about 1.4 million years ago and existed on this earth up to 0.2 million years back from now. They, however, started the systematic use of fire along with stone made tools mainly for procurement of food and self-defense. Thus gradually, though not significantly, the man made pollution started to be increasing which was still beyond any human palpable situation. Within next 1.4 to 1.6 million years Homo erectus did spread in Europe and Asian peninsular regions. One of their lineages evolved in to Homo heidelbergensis the fossils of which were obtained both from Heidelberg of Germanyand Africa though the first fossil of heidelbergensis was obtained from Germany but the fossils of heidelbergensis obtained from Africa were much earlier than those from Germany indicating the migratory form from Africa to Germany. Genetic study confirmed that Homo neanderthalensis evolved from Homo heidelbergensis, dating back to about 0.4millions years ago in and around Neanderthal valley and whose fossil from Africa is still missing indicating that this species probably evolved in Germany and radiated only in Europe and Homo sapiens also evolved from this Homo heidelbergensis but only in Africa that was in Ethiopia dating back to 0.2million of years ago from now. Second oldest fossil of anatomic ally modern man was from Israel dating back to 0.1million years ago from now. About 30thousand years ago the Homo neanderthalensis got extinction, the proper reason of their extinction is not yet clear in spite of the fact that they had higher brain volume (about 1600 cc) compared to that of anatomically modern man (about 1300 cc). Now let us have a detail search to shed light about where from the Homo sapiens started to interfere the whole and sole life regulatory natural force (otherwise said to be the natural selection). Natural force function directly interacting with the genomic mass of each and every probable gene programmed to be destined to form a new species and if this interaction goes smooth then only that would be leading to a new species with sustainability passport, but otherwise that new programmed genomic mass had/has to go for irreversible oblivion that means lost forever. Actually getting passport for any newly programmed gene mass from natural selection was and still is very rare, may be 0.000001% or even less. That is why it is said that evolution is a very slow but continuous process with more and more emerging complexities.
After emergence of anatomically modern man, they had no language or any social set up and thus they were solitary with probability of pairing with a female at reproductive maturity and onward expressing again with polygamy in nature like all other animals certainly cave dwelling with a bit of arboreal adaptation. The modern man for long were African species as only second oldest fossil of anatomically modern man was discovered from Israel dating back to 0.1million years from now. Probably only 60 thousand years ago a mass exodus occurred from Africa, may be due to shortage of food and shelter, and they settled in and around Mesopotamian region that includes Babylon, Iraq, and surrounding areas along the Daniube riverine basin. Various evidences suggest from then onwards sporadic migration of anatomically modern man occurred especially in Asia in particular and Europe in general and went on gradual changes by gene mutation due to severe interactive processes at various new environmental vistas being subjected to various different types of food . In this way within next 30 to 40 thousand years almost all area of Asia and many parts of Europe were populated by various migratory and inter-migratory groups of modern man were involved in great survival struggle from which many died and some survived to make territorial supremacy and gradually made sustainable survival group. In different environmental interactive zones each of those groups developed some adaptive modifications and thus formed different Ethnic groups emerged with some phenotypic and behavioral variations due to continuous occurrences of varied types of gene mutations and Epigenetic changes. By this way some advanced groups emerged and invaded American Peninsular region but that group could not sustain with the then existing natural selective force over there and ultimately the survived group migrated towards middle to northern parts of South America through the Mexican plateau where that group could settle and ultimately established the Maya Civilization (about 4500 BCE to 250 AD). In the meanwhile after that time on another group settled around the Indus riverine basin to establish Indus valley Civilization (from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE). In this way there were quite other few groups established some other Civilizations like Sumer Civilization (4500 BCE to 1900 BCE), and Peruvian civilization etc. That means about only 6,500 years or so modern humans started to live civilized lives meaning thereby an establishment of higher order of life process with united and collective face by implementing the architectural know how large numbers of buildings and other day to day easy life spending devices were achieved from hard earning food with most unsafe and uncertain cave dwelling lives. That was the beginning of mans’ anti-natural journey in a united fashion throughout the globe though in a sporadic manner. But then there was not much enmity between man and the nature as yet to mention with rather ignorance and searching higher order of life process easily, man started creating several nature polluting activities thereafter by material conversion and rapid deforestation. Gradually human population did spread over all the continents for food and shelter and in search of more and more smooth way in search of higher order of human lives from cave dwelling, food gathering and severe every day toiling to maintain day to day life activities . Since it is only the man could have developed the cause and effect relationship they could percept well the effect of any occurred event by analyzing the reason behind they successfully went on in an ascending track for their more and more better way of lives developing so called societies in a collective fashion at various regions of the Earth with a view to transition from hard earning live management to a better and certain way of life. By this time environment was in full blown capacity accumulating total life controlling power. But still then man could not pollute the nature that would have been self-destroying on this globe. Only the industrial revolution in Europe that occurred about 200 years ago culminated man to declare all-out war against nature creating full blown material conversion, fossil fuel combustions, establishment of huge industries without proper surveillance releasing all sorts of industrial affluences in large water bodies and rivers injudiciously especially in some European countries in particular and entire globe in general indicating the future of the mankind though quite ignorantly. Afterwards within the last 100 years or so man went on establishing more and more industrial cities in almost all continents with more and more sophistications developing super machineries polluting the land water and air by releasing various gasses, chemicals and various radioactive byproducts without proper and judicious surveillance with total submission to human greed everywhere in the name of human development. At the beginning with the help of acquiring scientific knowledge man illusively thought he would be quite in a position to control any environmental abuses due to human progressive activities on this globe by conquering the natural forces. But ultimately when Scientists could realize that the nature and natural force that control each and every life on this Earth is beyond human control as the sun and the core of the earth plays most important role for creating this all-pervading life controlling force. For the last few decades this Earth has been decorated by man with heat absorbing concrete (by billions and myriads of varied number of floored, 1 to 100 floored buildings). Thus man can be credited for the following changes to be brought about on this globe.
- Created air, land and water pollutants by various industrial effluents (by injudicious releasing in nature without proper management) which are highly dangerous and detrimental for human health in particular and all other plants and animals’ health in general, that infused in all eco systems. Many of those gases and other chemical compounds are carcinogenic.
- Burning several hundred and thousand tons of hydrocarbons every day throughout the World air has been impregnated with various gases of unburned hydrocarbons that includes CO2 and CO (Greenhouse gases) in addition to various air suspended particles (being 5 to 10 micron in diameter) which are highly injurious to lungs causing several respiratory diseases of man and other organisms. Those gases are very effective to retain rays from the Sun causing raised heat at the extent of all sorts of glassier melting that continuously increasing Oceanic water level sounding inundation of many big and medium Cities in the World within next 40 to 50 years.
- By deforesting about 70% land for human use for dwellings and agricultural purposes resulting highly raised CO2 level at 400ppm in the Biosphere (human tolerance level of CO2 is about 50 to 70 ppm).
- Creating larvicides, insecticides, herbicides and other such polluting chemicals have been used within the last 2 to 3 decades have severely impregnated the entire eco system that are ultimately insulting to threaten the human health in particular and all animal health in general with all sorts of carcinogenic and many other diseases’ threats.
- Created large numbers of antibiotics (Broad spectrum and general) and other drugs to challenge the all mighty and all-pervading agent controlling each and every living being the DNA world. It is a great assault on DNA which has been reigning for the 1.5 billion years on this globe.
It is such a mighty molecule which cannot be destroyed as it is self-creating, self-repairing highly heat tolerant (-100 to +100oC) and constant changeable and this single molecule controls each and every life, be it plant or animal, single celled or multi-celled structure. Thus human assault on this molecule by any chemical and or antibiotics will not be able to destroy it rather it will change and change to attack human anew. So…?
In short, man could be credited, therefore, with creating highly poisonous and heat elevating Biosphere, Making all types of eco-systems, on this Earth, highly impregnated with various carcinogens and DNA assaulting chemicals, Restricting independent gene flow in hereditary process laid down by the nature, from about two billions of years, by introducing the monogamy system denying the nature laid strict rule for DNA transmission in generations with free and quite independent manner. For creating material conversion within about 70% of global area by means of deforestation that intensified the animal and man conflict causing severe depletion in O2-CO2 ratio with great consequences.
Now question arises what then man could have done? Would they be maintaining their cave life? Even with a great potency of man to change his fate from backward cave life to modern civilized way of life. No definitely not, But had the man could progressed with very cautious and judicious manner with united or Sami united face understanding the nature properly the man could have obtained about another five to ten thousand years or so to place the human representative to other planets such as moon, Mars or even Jupiter and many more other planet to expand this species’ adaptation. But at the moment we have no alternative than to inch towards Death Valley whatever measure man may take to save the species within next five hundred years to one thousand years from now. From now onwards man has to bear more and more intense natural calamities such as tornado, deep depressions, huge over raining, prolonged drought, Earth quack with gradual intensive manner etc. Even now with this situation if all, politicians, all naturalists and all religious leaders can congregate together irrespective of any differences in religion, Politics and opinion man can get some lease of life for migrating to other planets for the survival of the race otherwise man has to be perished within 500 years to one thousand years from now within his own dug burrow the destined destination.
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